Local Anesthetics Review

~ Exam ~

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This test has 25 questions.

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1. Afferent or sensory nerves conduct impulses to the

  a. CNS.

  b. periphery of the body.

  c. motor nerves of muscles.

  d. pain stimulus.

2. Efferent or motor neurons conduct messages from

  a. the periphery of the body to the CNS.

  b. the pain stimulus to the periphery.

  c. the CNS to the periphery.

  d. the cell body to the CNS.

3. The most widely held theory on nerve transmission attributes conduction of the nerve impulse to changes in the

  a. axoplasm.

  b. axolemma.

  c. cell body.

  d. CNS.

4. For a local anesthetic to be clinically useful,

  a. it should be compatible with the tissues (not irritating).

  b. it's action should be temporary.

  c. it's action should be completely reversible.

  d. all of the above.

5. Amide anesthetics include:

  a. lidocaine

  b. cocaine

  c. novocaine

  d. procaine

6. Ester anesthetics include:

  a. mepivacaine (or carbocaine)

  b. prilocaine (or citanest)

  c. procaine

  d. bupivacaine (or marcaine)

7. Local anesthetics interfere with how the impulses travel down the length of the nerve.

  a. true

  b. false

8. Anesthetics are not as effective when infection is present because the pH of the tissues is __________ to allow the anesthetic to penetrate the nerve sufficiently.

  a. too high

  b. too low

9. A local anesthetic that is absorbed by the bloodstream is carried to

  a. all the tissues of the body.

  b. some of the fat tissues of the body.

  c. the urinary tract only.

  d. the brain only.

10. Highly __________ organs like the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys will have higher blood levels of anesthetic following injection than other less __________ areas.

  a. innervated

  b. toxic

  c. vascular

  d. complex

11. Vasoconstrictors are added to local anesthetics to __________ the absorption of the drug and prolong the anesthetic effect.

  a. decrease

  b. increase

  c. stop

  d. facilitate

12. Epinephrine is contraindicated in patients with:

  a. blood pressure over 200 systolic or 115 diastolic,

  b. uncontrolled hyperthyroidism,

  c. severe cardiovascular disease including less than 6 months after a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident

  d. daily episodes of angina pectoris or unstable angina

  e. all of the above

13. A factor that influences the action of local anesthetics is:

  a. the patient's individual response to the anesthetic.

  b. anxiety.

  c. the type of syringe used.

  d. a and b.

14. Lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:100,000 will provide pulpal anesthesia for approximately

  a. 3 hours

  b. 60 minutes

  c. 10 minutes

  d. 2 hours

15. Topical anesthetic is effective only about 2-3 mm of depth into the tissues on which it is applied.

  a. true

  b. false

16. When administering lidocaine 2% to a 180 lb. patient, the maximum amount recommended is:

  a. 300 mg

  b. 500 mg

  c. 700 mg

  d. 100 mg

17. The most likely place for a needle to break is

  a. at the bevel

  b. at the tip

  c. in the middle

  d. at the hub

18. Dental cartridges should be:

  a. submerged in alcohol.

  b. submerged in cold sterile solution.

  c. left overnight in a cartridge warmer.

  d. kept dry.

19. If a patient's blood pressure is 205/110, consult with their physician before administering local anesthetic.

  a. true

  b. false

20. The patient's baseline vital signs including __________ should be taken and recorded in the patient's chart before the injection of local anesthetic.

  a. blood pressure

  b. heart rate

  c. respiration rate

  d. all of the above

21. Pain on injection can be caused by

  a. an injection technique that is too rough.

  b. a dull needle.

  c. rapid deposition of solution.

  d. a barb on the needle.

  e. any of the above.

22. Hematomas most often occur during a

  a. posterior superior alveolar nerve block.

  b. palatal injection.

  c. maxillary nerve block.

  d. periodontal ligament injection.

23. Recommended treatment for trismus includes

  a. heat therapy with moist hot towels 20 minutes every hour.

  b. analgesics.

  c. muscle relaxants if necessary.

  d. all of the above.

24. Facial nerve paralysis may result from anesthetic being injected

  a. into a vessel.

  b. into a nerve.

  c. into the parotid gland.

  d. into the pulp of a tooth.

25. The most common cause of needle breakage is

  a. sudden movement by the patient.

  b. bowing of the needle during injection.

  c. autoclaving the needle.

  d. incorrect recapping technique.